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  #1  
Old 01-19-2008, 05:22 AM
LW Hiway's Avatar
LW Hiway LW Hiway is offline
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Default Heat-Treating compounds and ease of use

http://www.rosemill.com/default.asp?pageid=27391

A few weeks ago while working on a special project in the shop at work there was a need to case harden materials being used in a special task use. Being that the tooling was somewhat intricate and had to be detailed in form for function, I was held to first make the tool out of softer material and then simple hardening and finally to case harden for the finished tooling edges.

I wish I could give a complete and detailed story here, offer pictures and a running account, but as things are at work and being held to all things proprietary, I can only offer a very cryptic glint of the reasons for the product used.

If you pull up the link, you'll find the product web page and in the body of the first pages text, a link to a simple movie clip and in addition a pdf for a "how to".

I can attest to it's advertised simplicity as being true for the user in reality and of not having to be equipped with a rocket scientists metals lab to make the transition on/in the metals. The final tooling was held to our NDI labs findings before I could put the tool in use and proceed with the project. It worked extremely well, giving a very uniform area of hardening properties as needed. I was very surprised at how easy it was to make it look like I really knew what I was doing, without the smoke and mirrors.

Because I was held to a very short time limit on acquiring/finding a supplier due to scheduling, I was limited to buying somewhat in bulk and would hope that the near future might find other uses for the overage of the powder in the short term. Perhaps I can acquire, ethically of course, a few oz's for further study at the farm.

There are other products out there that will/should offer the same results for less initial cost outlay, and I welcome that information to be posted here in this thread. It had been a very long time since I needed to be involved with this type need and my memory of past products used was nil.

edit; I guess it would be appropriate to mention that the product I ordered and used was "Cherry Red" off their site.
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Last edited by LW Hiway; 01-19-2008 at 06:33 AM.
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Old 01-20-2008, 01:07 AM
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Seems to be the same as Kasenit. I've used that already with good results and you can buy it in small cans.



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  #3  
Old 01-20-2008, 01:28 AM
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Yea Dave that's it. I did some searching here after posting the thread and found it. I knew we've had the stuff around for ages, just couldn't remember the name of it.
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Quoting "The Hunt". "A man will walk into hell with both eyes and arms wide open. His dog will know better."

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Old 01-20-2008, 06:00 AM
theweldor theweldor is offline
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I use " Quick Hard" made by Harris. Comes in 1 lb cans. Seems to work good.
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Old 01-20-2008, 08:09 AM
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I used Kasenit for hardening dogs. Seems to work better than not hardening.
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  #6  
Old 01-20-2008, 08:38 AM
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Quote:
Seems to work better than not hardening.
I know what/how you meant it, but I still laughed reading it.
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God, if you would grant me one request through Prayer, please help me be the Man my Dog thinks I am. Please.

Quoting "The Hunt". "A man will walk into hell with both eyes and arms wide open. His dog will know better."

I never thought I'd live long enough to become a grumpy old bastard. Here I am, killing it!
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Old 01-20-2008, 10:45 AM
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All of the above materials are known as Pack Carburiziers. In production, their use is minimal any more with controlled atmospheric furnaces.

Google "Pack Carburizing"
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Old 01-20-2008, 10:53 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Efunda
Introduction

The Carbon content in the steel determines whether it can be directly hardened. If the Carbon content is low (less than 0.25% for example) then an alternate means exists to increase the Carbon content of the surface. The part then can be heat-treated by either quenching in liquid or cooling in still air depending on the properties desired. Note that this method will only allow hardening on the surface, but not in the core, because the high carbon content is only on the surface. This is sometimes very desirable because it allows for a hard surface with good wear properties (as on gear teeth), but has a tough core that will perform well under impact loading.


Carburizing

Carburizing is a process of adding Carbon to the surface. This is done by exposing the part to a Carbon rich atmosphere at an elevated temperature and allows diffusion to transfer the Carbon atoms into steel. This diffusion will work only if the steel has low carbon content, because diffusion works on the differential of concentration principle. If, for example the steel had high carbon content to begin with, and is heated in a carbon free furnace, such as air, the carbon will tend to diffuse out of the steel resulting in Decarburization.

Pack Carburizing: Parts are packed in a high carbon medium such as carbon powder or cast iron shavings and heated in a furnace for 12 to 72 hours at 900 ºC (1652 ºF). At this temperature CO gas is produced which is a strong reducing agent. The reduction reaction occurs on the surface of the steel releasing Carbon, which is then diffused into the surface due to the high temperature. When enough Carbon is absorbed inside the part (based on experience and theoretical calculations based on diffusion theory), the parts are removed and can be subject to the normal hardening methods.

The Carbon on the surface is 0.7% to 1.2% depending on process conditions. The hardness achieved is 60 - 65 RC. The depth of the case ranges from about 0.1 mm (0.004 in) upto 1.5 mm (0.060 in). Some of the problems with pack carburizing is that the process is difficult to control as far as temperature uniformity is concerned, and the heating is inefficient.

Gas Carburizing: Gas Carburizing is conceptually the same as pack carburizing, except that Carbon Monoxide (CO) gas is supplied to a heated furnace and the reduction reaction of deposition of carbon takes place on the surface of the part. This processes overcomes most of the problems of pack carburizing. The temperature diffusion is as good as it can be with a furnace. The only concern is to safely contain the CO gas. A variation of gas carburizing is when alcohol is dripped into the furnace and it volatilizes readily to provide the reducing reaction for the deposition of the carbon.

Liquid Carburizing: The steel parts are immersed in a molten carbon rich bath. In the past, such baths have cyanide (CN) as the main component. However, safety concerns have led to non-toxic baths that achieve the same result.


Nitriding

Nitriding is a process of diffusing Nitrogen into the surface of steel. The Nitrogen forms Nitrides with elements such as Aluminum, Chromium, Molybdenum, and Vanadium. The parts are heat-treated and tempered before nitriding. The parts are then cleaned and heated in a furnace in an atmosphere of dissociated Ammonia (containing N and H) for 10 to 40 hours at 500-625 ºC (932 - 1157 ºF). Nitrogen diffuses into the steel and forms nitride alloys, and goes to a depth of upto 0.65 mm (0.025 in). The case is very hard and distortion is low. No further heat treatment is required; in fact, further heat treatment can crack the hard case. Since the case is thin, surface grinding is not recommended. This can restrict the use of nitriding to surfaces that require a very smooth finish.


Carbonitriding


Carbonitriding process is most suitable for low carbon and low carbon alloy steels. In this process, both Carbon and Nitrogen are diffused into the surface. The parts are heated in an atmosphere of hydrocarbon (such as methane or propane) mixed with Ammonia (NH3). The process is a mix of Carburizing and Nitriding.

Carburizing involves high temperatures (around 900 ºC, 1652 ºF) and Nitriding involves much lower temperatures (around 600 ºC, 1112 ºF). Carbonitriding is done at temperatures of 760 - 870 ºC (1400 - 1598 ºF), which is higher than the transformation temperatures of steel that is the region of the face-centered Austenite.

It is then quenched in a natural gas (Oxygen free) atmosphere. This quench is less drastic than water or oil-thus less distortion. However this process is not suitable for high precision parts due to the distortions that are inherent. The hardness achieved is similar to carburizing (60 - 65 RC) but not as high as Nitriding (70 RC). The case depth is from 0.1 to 0.75 mm (0.004 to 0.030 in). The case is rich in Nitrides as well as Martensite. Tempering is necessary to reduce the brittleness.
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  #9  
Old 01-20-2008, 01:02 PM
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Kasenit contains Sodium Ferro-cyanide. Cherry Red does not, but does have Potassium Nitrate and Chromium Oxide III.
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